Original Research

Tool development to measure the resilience of water supply systems in Tanzania: Economic dimension

Lukuba N. Sweya, Suzanne Wilkinson
Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies | Vol 13, No 1 | a860 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v13i1.860 | © 2021 Lukuba N. Sweya, Suzanne Wilkinson | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 30 June 2019 | Published: 11 January 2021

About the author(s)

Lukuba N. Sweya, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
Suzanne Wilkinson, School of Built Environment, Massey University, Albany Campus, Auckland, New Zealand


he world has experienced devastating disasters causing severe human life and economic losses, which is estimated to be 68.5% of the global economic losses between 2005 and 2017. Natural disasters are of great concern – they caused total damage of approximately $3.5 trillion during the past century – which is more than the global infrastructure development investment in 2014. Floods – exacerbated by climate change – are expected to cause more damages, and water supply infrastructures will continue to suffer if resilience is not improved. Measuring the economic changes affecting resilience would assist in developing risk reduction initiatives to minimise disaster losses. Such a measure is lacking for Tanzania water supply systems (WSSs). The current article applied three-stage processes – literature review, pre-assessment and Delphi technique – to develop a resilience tool to measure economic resilience for urban WSSs in Tanzania. Thematic and standard descriptive analyses were carried out during the study. Dynamism principle and three indicators – system investment proportionality, public–private partnership and cost recovery – emerged as principal components for the tool. The tool is expected to be useful during water authorities’ planning processes and budgeting in order to improve the overall WSSs resilience.


resilience; floods; water supply systems; Delphi techniques; economic dimension


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Crossref Citations

1. Comprehensive Indicator Bank for Resilience of Water Supply Systems
Mostafa Baghersad, Suzanne Wilkinson, Hamed Khatibi, Hélder Sousa
Advances in Civil Engineering  vol: 2021  first page: 1  year: 2021  
doi: 10.1155/2021/2360759