Original Research

Application of the force-field technique to drought vulnerability analysis: A phenomenological approach

Bernard M. Hlalele
Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies | Vol 11, No 1 | a589 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v11i1.589 | © 2019 Bernard M. Hlalele | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 10 December 2017 | Published: 13 March 2019

About the author(s)

Bernard M. Hlalele, Department of Business Support Studies, Central University of Technology, Bloemfontein, South Africa


Drought events are integral parts of climate variability. Over 80% of the Basotho population’s livelihood is dependent on rain-fed agriculture. This current study used force-field project management technique for drought vulnerability analysis. The study was approached from a phenomenological viewpoint conceptualised using a force-field analysis technique. The study used a qualitative research approach and a phenomenological research design. The main findings of this study were high unemployment rate, environmental degradation and poverty. The study proposes that post- education outreaches and community capacity-building projects should be effected. This can take several forms, such as learnerships, where everyone is certificated for the job trained for. The study proposes that all registered institutions in country, be it catering, Basotho Enterprises Development Corporation (BEDCO), construction companies, driving schools, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), private companies, driving schools, NGO’s, private companies and so on, can take part in the training of members of the community in partnership with well-known institutions such as the National University of Lesotho, St, Elizabeth, Lerotholi Polytechnic and Limkonkwin Creative University for accredited informal certification. This skilled labour force can then be trained on how to create and form cooperatives to assist the government with the task of employment. Ha Masupha and Ha Thakanyane are places that are less advantaged with poor transport and road infrastructure and high migration rates and poverty levels. If all or a majority of the proposed actions for change are effected, there will be fewer new HIV/AIDS infections, improved quality of life, less deforestation caused by poor socio-economic status and less graduate unemployment for all Thabana Morena communities.

Keywords: Force-field technique; phenomenology; vulnerability; drought; hazard; disaster.


socially inclusive teaching strategy; critical emancipatory paradigm; English First Additional Language; critical discourse analysis; public farm school


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