Original Research

Delineating risk zones and evaluation of shelter centres for flood disaster management along the Pahang River Basin, Malaysia

Anizan Isahak, Mohammad I.H. Reza, Chamhuri Siwar, Shaharuddin M. Ismail, Norela Sulaiman, Zulkifli Hanafi, Mohd S. Zainuddin, Mohd R. Taha
Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies | Vol 10, No 1 | a501 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v10i1.501 | © 2018 Anizan Isahak, Mohammad I.H. Reza, Chamhuri Siwar, Shaharuddin M. Ismail, Norela Sulaiman, Zulkifli Hanafi, Mohd S. Zainuddin, Mohd R. Taha | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 01 June 2017 | Published: 23 April 2018

About the author(s)

Anizan Isahak, School of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Institute for Environment and Development, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
Mohammad I.H. Reza, Institute for Environment and Development, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
Chamhuri Siwar, Institute for Environment and Development, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
Shaharuddin M. Ismail, Institute for Environment and Development, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
Norela Sulaiman, School of Environmental and Natural Resources Science, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
Zulkifli Hanafi, Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, Infrastructure University Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Mohd S. Zainuddin, Institute for Environment and Development, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
Mohd R. Taha, Institute for Environment and Development, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia


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Abstract

Shelter centres are important locations to safeguard people from helpless situations and are an integral part of disaster risk reduction (DRR), particularly for flood DRR. The establishment of shelter centres, and their design based on scientific assessment, is crucial. Yet, they are very much related to the geographic location, socio-economic conditions and the livelihoods of the affected communities. However, many parts of the developing world are still lagging behind in ensuring such scientific design. Considering the flood disaster in 2014 that affected the residents living along the Pahang River Basin, in this study we delineate the communities at risk and evaluate the existing shelter centres to determine how they reduce people’s vulnerability to the risks associated with rural and urban landscapes. We used spatial analysis tools to delineate risk zones and to evaluate existing evacuation systems. A flood disaster risk map was produced to determine which communities are living with risks. Subsequently, the distribution of shelter centres examined whether they are able to support people living at the flood risk zones. These centres were also evaluated using a set of international guidelines for effective disaster shelters. This reveals that the number of shelter centres is not adequate. The designation and designing of shelter centres are not being done scientifically. The maps produced here have a lot of potential to support disaster management decisions, in particular site selection and the prioritisation of centres. The study concludes with a set of guidelines and recommendations for structural and non-structural measures, such as alternative livelihoods and the potential of ecotourism, which may improve the resilience among flood-affected communities; and the decision-making process for the overall flood DRR initiatives.

Keywords

risk reduction; ecotourism; resilience; shelter centres; structural design

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