Original Research

A comparative study of earthquake disaster management laws between USA and Indonesia

Ardianto B. Rahmawan, Gabriela Eliana, Latif A. Habibi, Alyca A. Nariswari
Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies | Vol 16, No 1 | a1582 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v16i1.1582 | © 2024 Ardianto B. Rahmawan, Gabriela Eliana, Latif A. Habibi, Alyca A. Nariswari | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 20 August 2023 | Published: 22 February 2024

About the author(s)

Ardianto B. Rahmawan, Department of Administrative Law, Faculty of Law, University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Gabriela Eliana, Department of Business Law, Faculty of Law, University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Latif A. Habibi, Department of Civil Law, Faculty of Law, University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Alyca A. Nariswari, Department of Business Law, Faculty of Law, University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Abstract

The frequent occurrence of disasters because of Indonesia’s geographical location within the Ring of Fire calls for effective disaster-management efforts. With the issuance of Law No. 24 of 2007 on Disaster Management, the Indonesian National Disaster Management Agency (Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana or BNPB) was subsequently established. Keeping in mind previous disasters in Indonesia which occur in different regions, that is, Palu and Aceh Tsunami, Cianjur earthquake, and Mount Merapi, Indonesia’s disaster-management law is general and lacks technical guidelines in addressing the needs of the various regions and the different contours of geography. This article aims to analyse existing Indonesian regulatory and agency problems in disaster management by conducting a normative and comparative approach between the disaster management policy in the United States of America (USA) and Indonesia. The authors chose the USA’s disaster-management policy in particular as most comparative studies on disaster management law do not involve the USA despite the State’s ability to provide a comprehensive and consistent policy in the midst of the decentralisation of responsibilities with the numerous states. The authors conclude that according to existing disaster-management laws in USA and Indonesia, the government is obligated to fulfil its citizens’ rights in the event of natural disasters. Furthermore, noting the issues that exist within the Indonesian disaster-management system, Indonesia can adopt the best practices of the USA to improve its disaster-management system. Among others, Indonesia can learn from the USA in the fields of accountability and transparency amongst agencies, the development of Early Warning Systems, an improved system of interagency cooperation, as well as the provision of specific disaster-management assistance.

Contribution: The findings of this study are expected to serve as evaluation material and to improve government effectiveness in dealing with natural disasters.


Keywords

Indonesia; earthquakes; disaster management; agencies; regulatory problems

Sustainable Development Goal

Goal 16: Peace, justice and strong institutions

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