Original Research

Geospatial analysis of flood emergency evacuation sites in Accra

Rapheal Ane Atanga, Vitus Tankpa
Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies | Vol 14, No 1 | a1172 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v14i1.1172 | © 2022 Rapheal Ane Atanga, Vitus Tankpa | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 31 May 2021 | Published: 09 December 2022

About the author(s)

Rapheal Ane Atanga, Department of Geography Education, Faculty of Social Sciences Education, University of Education, Winneba, Ghana; and, Department of Tourism, School of Tourism and Hospitality, College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
Vitus Tankpa, Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, China


Cities face frequent flood disasters with devastating impact on lives and property. Geospatial analysis using high elevation points can help to map out emergency evacuation centres for decision making on flood risk management. This research maps and analyses flood emergency evacuation centres in Accra. The objectives of this research were to map out flood hazard and vulnerable settlements, analyse the spatial distribution and identify the optimal locations for flood emergency evacuation sites. The data for this study comprises digital elevation models, stream networks, settlement data, flood risk zone maps of the study site and existing documents on flood disaster risk of the study area. This study adopted the weighted linear combination method to estimate site suitability for emergency evacuation sites. ArcGIS 10.6 was used to analyse the data. The research found that the optimal locations for potential evacuation centres are unevenly distributed between 300 m and 400 m above sea level, most which are in the north-eastern and north-western parts of Accra. The results can contribute to research, policy and decision-making on flood risk management in Accra and other localities with similar conditions. The research further contributes to literature on flood risk management and geographic information system.

Contribution: This research is useful as mapping could increase awareness of evacuation sites to speed up rapid response to immediate impacts of flood events. The findings of the study will facilitate future decisions for demarcating potential flood emergency evacuation sites. The overall aim of this study is to contribute to literature, policy, spatial analysis and the practice of flood risk management in the study area. The research findings can also be applied to other flood-prone areas with similar contexts as the study site.


flood emergency evacuation centres; geographic information system; suitability sites; Accra Metropolitan Assembly; weighted linear combination method; remote sensing


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Crossref Citations

1. An overview of Volume 14, No 1 (2022)
Jason K. von Meding
Jàmbá Journal of Disaster Risk Studies  vol: 14  issue: 1  year: 2022  
doi: 10.4102/jamba.v14i1.1379